Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their alkylated, nitrated and oxygenated derivatives in the atmosphere over the Mediterranean and Middle East seas

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WIETZORECK Marco KYPRIANOU Marios MUSA BANDOWE Benjamin A. CELIK Siddika CROWLEY John N. DREWNICK Frank EGER Philipp FRIEDRICH Nils IAKOVIDES Minas KUKUČKA Petr KUTA Jan NEŽIKOVÁ Barbora POKORNA Petra PŘIBYLOVÁ Petra PROKEŠ Roman ROHLOFF Roland TADIC Ivan TAUER Sebastian WILSON Jake HARDER Hartwig LELIEVELD Jos POESCHL Ulrich STEPHANOU Euripides G LAMMEL Gerhard

Rok publikování 2022
Druh Článek v odborném periodiku
Časopis / Zdroj Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Fakulta / Pracoviště MU

Přírodovědecká fakulta

Citace
www https://acp.copernicus.org/articles/22/8739/2022/
Doi http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/acp-22-8739-2022
Klíčová slova AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER; PARTICLE DISPERSION MODEL; GAS-PHASE REACTIONS; SHIP-BORNE MEASUREMENTS; MASS SIZE DISTRIBUTION; NITRO-PAHS; ARABIAN PENINSULA; CHEMICAL-COMPOSITION; AIR-POLLUTION; SPATIAL-DISTRIBUTION
Přiložené soubory
Popis Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their alkylated (RPAHs), nitrated (NPAHs) and oxygenated (OPAHs) derivatives are air pollutants. Many of these substances are long-lived, can undergo longrange atmospheric transport and adversely affect human health upon exposure. However, the occurrence and fate of these air pollutants have hardly been studied in the marine atmosphere. In this study, we report the atmospheric concentrations over the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea, the Arabian Sea, the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Gulf, determined during the AQABA (Air Quality and Climate Change in the Arabian Basin) project, a comprehensive ship-borne campaign in summer 2017. The average concentrations of Sigma(26) PAHs, Sigma(19)RPAHs, Sigma(11)OPAHs and Sigma(17)NPAHs, in the gas and particulate phases, were 2.99 +/- 3.35 ng m(-3), 0.83 +/- 0.87 ng m(-3), 0.24 +/- 0.25 ng m(-3)and 4.34 +/- 7.37 pg m(-3), respectively. The Arabian Sea region was the cleanest for all substance classes, with concentrations among the lowest ever reported. Over the Mediterranean Sea, we found the highest average burden of Sigma(26)PAHs and Sigma(11)OPAHs, while the Sigma(17)NPAHs were most abundant over the Arabian Gulf (known also as the Persian Gulf). 1,4-Naphthoquinone (1,4-O(2)NAP) followed by 9-fluorenone and 9,10-anthraquinone were the most abundant studied OPAHs in most samples. The NPAH composition pattern varied significantly across the regions, with 2-nitronaphthalene (2-NNAP) being the most abundant NPAH. According to source apportionment investigations, the main sources of PAH derivatives in the region were ship exhaust emissions, residual oil combustion and continental pollution. All OPAHs and NPAHs except 2-nitrofluoranthene (2-NFLT), which were frequently detected during the campaign, showed elevated concentrations in fresh shipping emissions. In contrast, 2-NFLT and 2-nitropyrene (2-NPYR) were highly abundant in aged shipping emissions due to secondary formation. Apart from 2-NFLT and 2-NPYR, benz(a)anthracene-7,12-dione and 2-NNAP also had significant photochemical sources. Another finding was that the highest concentrations of PAHs, OPAHs and NPAHs were found in the sub-micrometre fraction of particulate matter (PM1).
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